Basic concepts of family psychology
- family Features
- family structure
- family Dynamics
Definition of family :
The family – a small social group, which is based on the marital union and family relations (husband’s relationship with his wife, parents and children, brothers and sisters) who live together and have a common household. The most important characteristics of this family of its functions, structure and dynamics.
Under the function of the family is understood as a sphere of life, which is linked to satisfaction of certain members of their family needs.
Classification according to Maslow’s needs – 6 levels. More simple – the need for security, affection and achievements.
The functions of the family needs:
1. Educational function
It is to meet family needs in their psychological parenthood, interaction with children, parenting and self-realization in the children themselves.
family function applies not only to individual human needs, but it is also relevant to society. With regard to the family to society, raising children has the function of socialization of the younger generation. They brought up a son or daughter, as well as a member of society. This feature is quite long – from birth to adulthood. This feature provides more and continuity of generations. To renew itself in children, it is important that the children can extend yourself. And for this you need to give them a maximum of mental, physical and social health.
2. Economic – home
She is to meet the family members of their biological and material needs and in meeting the needs of maintaining their health – physical, mental and social. In the course of this family function there is a restoration of physical and mental forces that were spent in the field of work.
3. emotional exchange function
The family is formed by people who are in kinship. These relationships are based on emotionally-positive contacts, which are called affection. This standard attachment exists originally between family members, and is manifested in the experience and expression of his attitude one family member to another. We express affection in the form of emotion. They express – it is an axiom for us. Gradually, this affection is expressed in a serious psychological needs. This is the need for love, sympathy, respect, recognition of the other, the other emotional support and psychological protection. This feature is standard assumes that family members know what their feelings and are able to express and experience, which leads to the fact that emotional exchange occurs in the family. Accordingly, because the family – is a holistic education, not only members of the family share the emotions inside, but the family as a whole expresses a certain emotion and directs it into the environment. Therefore, the emotional exchange is not only expressed in the family, but also in relation to other families and social groups. Often within a family emotional exchange is one character, and between families is completely different. There is a type of family “family – a fortress.” Inside her love and affection, and hatred for other families. Emotional exchange has a different character.
This feature is considered to be implemented if between the family and the environment is a constant emotional interchange. This means that allocates a family of emotions in the environment and in response receives some experiences. If this interchange is broken, the family becomes full unexpressed and unconscious feelings. This leads to disease in the family as a whole.
4. Communicative function
She is to meet the needs of the family in a joint holding time (leisure), mutual cultural and spiritual enrichment, and this feature contributes to the spiritual development of members of society. The level of development of communication in the family corresponds to the degree of development of communication in society. Through communication occurs serious personal growth. The implementation of this function leads to serious personal growth of family members.
5. The primary function of social control
The purpose of the society – not only to help the person to survive, but it presupposes and control function – the imposition of restrictions and prohibitions that help to survive to create them. Family – a small social group, a new member of society is born in it. Enforcement of family social norms – an important feature. Especially those family members who do not have sufficient capacity to build their behavior in accordance with existing social norms. These factors limit the ability to build their own behavior is age (family controls children, the elderly and elderly members of the family), the fact of illness of a family member, leading to disability (relatives should exercise social control, as the guardians)
6. Sexy – erotic function
There to meet the sexual needs of the family, regulates sexual behavior of family members. Maintenance of biological reproduction of society, so that family turn into genera, reaching to generation.
Just as a person has a date of birth and death, the family is also there in time, at some point there and then disappears. She also has its phases of development. The dynamic component is that over the life of the family share each of the functions may vary. Some features may not go to the 1st plan, and some on the 2nd or even disappear. The appearance of children in the family brings to the 1st plan of education and life function. The young family on the 1st place may be sex in old family upbringing function can disappear. Options vary not only in the development cycle of the family but also in the historical cycle. In history there have been phases when the family from generation to generation passed on private property (palaces), social status (the House of Lords in the UK).
The family that adequately fulfills the totality of its functions is called functional. If the family observed violations of any function or multiple functions together, such a family called .disfunktsionalnoy. It is the main object of social work, family counseling or family therapy. The psychologist helps the family as a whole rather than its individual chlenu.Vse these functions are related to each other and in practice is very rare to encounter an isolated dysfunction. Restoring have to 2-3-4 and t.d.funktsii.
Violation of the functions of the family – these are the features of her life, which impede or interfere with the implementation of the family of its main functions. For example, families of sailors violated sexually erotic family function.
The number and composition of members of the family, as well as a set of relations between its members. It is closely related to its function. They affect each other. For example, all affect the separation function. There are the following forms of the family:
The basic form of the family is a nuclear family. This triangle – parents and one child. She is represented by members of 2 generations – parents and children. There are 2 versions – the full nuclear family (parents and two children) and incomplete nuclear family (the absence of one of the parents). Life without children is also incomplete nuclear family.
2nd form – extended family. This family, which combines blood relatives more than 2 generations are united in a common household. The most common option – a family with grandparents and other relatives.
3rd option – a large family. This is a group of blood relatives of different generations, who lives in one place does not necessarily lead joint household and is headed by the figure of the patriarch or matriarch. This form is typical for the villages or small towns or in the suburbs of large cities. There are parents’ house, next to 2-4 at home, where they live families of children with specific nature of the relationship. Parents act as patriarch, affecting the existence of the family. This family is hierarchical.
4 th option – the family – a clan. This group is vitally united by kinship, which does not necessarily reside in one place and does not necessarily have a single leader. Example – the Sicilian Mafia.
5th option – family – yard. Typical for Russia 17-19 centuries. Now rare. It brings together several generations of family members, the family includes people who are not related by blood (governesses, servants, maids).
family structure Violations also occur, as well as impaired function. These are the features of the family structure, which impede or interfere with the implementation of its basic functions of the family. For example, often household function asymmetrically divided, when the husband does not take part in it, and does everything his wife. The main form in which manifest violation of the structure of relationships becomes a family conflict. It interferes with the implementation of its various functions family. Society is trying to restore the family structure. Here are 2 lines:
- Not a psychological line, restores the physical structure of the family (dating services, fortune-tellers, astrologers).
- Psychological Line – allows you to recover the structure of relationships in the family.
The study of family structure and relations is extremely important.
The family has a life cycle that starts with the marriage, which passes through a certain stage of life, disappearing in 2 versions:
- Death of a family member
In the literature on the psychology of the family stand out a lot of classifications of the stages of family life. Each stage has its own challenges and has its crises, that it is important to overcome in order to advance to the next stage. This is a regulation.
1 stage – the stage of a young family (0-5let). It starts from the family before the birth of the 1st child in the family. Gregory Bateson called this stage of the dyad. The main tasks of development at this stage – the adaptation problems of young spouses to each other. Adaptation involves mutual sexual adaptation, as well as the problem of accumulation of the original family. At this point, add up the family with other families. Especially injury when the young family does not have their own homes. Family Psychologists believe that marriage is not between people, and between families. Formed within the family habits and values. This adaptation period causes severe emotional stress. Many young families can not stand this – the peak divorce rate in this age group.
The reasons for the high rate of divorce:
- lack of preparation for marriage
- poor living conditions
- lack of living space
- interference in family relationships young
Stage 2 – a family with minor children. This triad square pentad etc., Depending on the number of children. From the birth of the first child and ends when the last child leaves the family. This is the central stage of the life cycle of a duration of at least 18 years. In the process of becoming a mature family. This is the period of greatest economic and consumer activity. It becomes very relevant educational function. On the one hand the family becomes more stable, on the other hand in the triad appears three sides and the distance between people increases. The emergence of the 1st child for the father is very traumatic. Someone called it the primary in divorce when the mother love is switched from the father to the child. The peak divorce rate in the age of the child from 2 to 5 years.
Educational function – the main feature of the stage. Characterized spouses overload, overvoltage of their forces and the lack of opportunities to recover. Dilema – what to save – yourself or family. The need to adapt to the constant changes in the structure and function relationships in the family. You can select sub-dependent children:
- Family with baby
- Family with preschooler
- Family with a schoolboy 12 years
- Family with teenagers – boys (12-21god)
Then the empty nest syndrome.
This step was accompanied by a 2nd crisis in the family, which also marked the peak of the divorce. This crisis occurs in the age of 17-25 years of marriage. He lived for the children, and now pickings for themselves – to start a new family. This crisis is interesting because on one hand it is a family crisis (gray head, and a lusty), on the other – a situation where in a family of its members are experiencing their own crises (for children – a crisis of ego identity – find themselves; the Pope with mother under 40 – their achievements crisis). It turns out very traumatic situation. It is difficult for adults to parents to take their adult children who have a right to exist. Add crisis circumstances (Dad lost his career, someone died and so forth.), Obtained an extraordinary pressure on the family at the confluence 3-4 crises. The next crisis could be fatal, the family breaks up.
Stage 3 – the final. It starts from the moment when the last child leaves the family and begins his career – empty nest crisis. Her husband suddenly starts to see his wife after 25 years of marriage. The stage begins with the loss, we need a new adaptation to each other at the end of the mature, the beginning of old age. Disappears educational function. Intense resistance grown up children, violation of emotional interaction. The problem of the adoption of an elderly parent adult son or daughter. Weakened physical strength, rest becomes important health problem. Mastering the role of grandparents, the problem of surrogate mothers. The main problem of this age – to meet the need for recognition, respect, especially by children.