Baby care. Truth and myths about vitamins
word “vitamin” comes from the Latin word “vita”, which means “life.” Vitamins – a group of biologically active organic compounds of various structure and composition required for the proper development and the life of the organism; are indispensable to the supply factors.
The discovery of vitamins is associated with the name of Russian scientist N.I.Lunina, who in 1880 established experimentally that in the food supply are unknown factors necessary for life.
He found that white mice treated with whole milk, grew well and were healthy, but were killed when they were fed with a mixture of the main components of milk: casein-protein, fat, lactose, salts and water.
The term “vitamin” in 1912 suggested that the Polish scientist K.Funk. The body vitamins come primarily with food. Some of these are synthesized in the gut by the activity of microorganisms, but the resulting number of vitamins are not always fully satisfy the needs of the organism. Vitamins are involved in the regulation of metabolism; they are biological catalysts or reagents chemical processes in the body, and actively participate in the formation of enzymes. Vitamins affect the absorption of nutrients, promote normal cell growth and development of the organism. As a part of enzymes, vitamins determine their normal function and activity. The disadvantage, and even more so in the absence of the body of a vitamin leads to metabolic disorders.
What we are lacking
a result of deficiency or absence of vitamins develops vitamin deficiency (vitamin deficiency or vitamin deficiencies). The reason vitamin deficiency may be not only the lack of vitamins in the diet, but also disturbance of their intestinal absorption, transport to tissues and the conversion into the biologically active form. In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract organs violated the assimilation of vitamins and can cause their failure.
Mass surveys regularly conducted by the Laboratory of vitamins and minerals of the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, indicate widespread various forms of vitamin A deficiency. Most disadvantaged, if not disastrous, is the case with vitamin C deficiency is detected in 70-100% of children, pregnant and lactating women, the adult working population, the elderly. In 40-80% of insufficient supply of vitamins B and carotene. In 70% of pregnant women Russian found folic acid deficiency and vitamin B6 deficiency in pregnant women close to 90-100%.
The need for vitamins increases the body’s growth period, during pregnancy and lactation, during and after illness, with great physical and mental stress (eg in sports), in the performance of work requiring a large neuro-emotional stress, as well as prolonged exposure is not cold; deteriorating the absorption of vitamins in old age.
Almost all of us are subject to spring insufficiency of vitamins and minerals, which appears in most people a classic set of symptoms. If you feel sleepy, exhaustion, irritability, decreased attention and memory; if you are vulnerable to all kinds of colds; if you quickly get tired eyes and reduces the severity of night vision; If you have dry, flaky skin, you have annoying acne, “barley”, boils; if cracked lips, exfoliate nails and hair dull, break off and fall hard, slow to heal sores on the skin; If you notice bleeding gums when “not strong” cleaning teeth, surprised to discover on your own body bruises from the usual travel to public transport – it is the vitamin deficiencies.
Excessive intake of vitamins can also lead to hypervitaminosis zabolevaniyam-. They can be either from a single intake of large doses of vitamin (usually in the form of vitamin preparation) or as a result of prolonged use of vitamins at doses exceeding the body’s need. Each vitamin and mineral complex you can buy at a pharmacy without a prescription, but that does not mean that it must take a chaotic, intense and too massive doses. A sense of proportion on this issue never hurts. Intake of vitamins must strictly conform to its physiological needs.
What to take?
Today we know 13 vitamins essential to man: B1, B2, B6, B12, PP, C, A, D, E, K, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biota. I would like to briefly talk about some of them.
Vitamin A is responsible for the human visual acuity. This substance of a part of rhodopsin – the pigment that converts impinging on the retina the light into electrical impulses to the brain and create a visual image. If lately you have noticed that dusk visual acuity you fall – is a clear sign of lack of vitamin A. Vitamin A is also involved in the growth of the organism.
Fat-soluble vitamin D.
Other its name – calciferol, that is “carrying calcium.” It provides us with calcium and phosphorus. The body gets vitamin D from cod liver oil. In addition, it is formed in the skin when exposed to sunlight. The lack of this substance makes the bones of the skeleton too fragile.
Vitamin E – is one of bioantioxidants. He is responsible for the normal course of pregnancy and birth of a healthy, high-grade child. Manifestations of E-vitamin deficiency – anemia, muscle weakness and associated with premature aging and destruction of muscle fibers and red blood cells.
Bioanoksidantny mechanism that regulates the oxygen effect on the body, is faltering.
Fat-soluble vitamin K is also called “vitamin coagulation.” Vitamin K deficiency in middle age is extremely rare. This is because microorganisms that inhabit our intestine can synthesize this substance. However, the reason for osteoporo that so often affects the older generation – it is the lack of this vitamin. In addition, the corollary of beriberi can be male infertility.
Vitamin C – one of the most popular vitamins. Many know that in the absence of the substance vessel walls become particularly brittle. Fragility of capillaries leads to constant bleeding, appear on the skin, “the usual bruises.” Vitamin C is able to neutralize toxins secreted by bacteria that get into our bodies. In addition, it prevents cancers and promotes absorption of iron.
Most popular misconceptions
with vitamin preparations involves a lot of errors, which ultimately reduce the effectiveness of vitamin therapy to nothing …
1. In particular, many people believe that all the necessary vitamins and minerals can be obtained only from plant foods.
It’s a delusion. In the fruit, vegetables and greens in just enough vitamin C, carotenoids and folic acid. Essential B vitamins found in meat and dairy products. But to ensure the daily needs of the organism, for example, vitamin B2, it is necessary every day to eat 150 grams of liver or kidney, or 800 g of cottage cheese. Vitamin B also contained in bread, but not in the white and black bran.
2. misconception that winter and spring we can “get to» the required amount of vitamins from home-canned. Canned fruits and vegetables should not be abused. Nutrients in them very little, but the sugar and salt in excess. It is fraught with vascular disease. Most vitamins stored in the fruit and vegetables that have been frozen, soaked or dried (provided that the workpiece will be subjected to regular defrosting and frost).
3. The wrong is the assertion that if the daily diet is well balanced, the person is getting enough vitamins. Unfortunately, it is not. The physiological needs of our body for vitamins and trace elements are formed throughout the evolution of the previous type, in which the human metabolism has adapted to the amount of biologically active substances, which he received large amounts of simple natural food, appropriate as large consumption of energy of our ancestors. For example, to get the necessary daily requirement of vitamin B1 is 1.4 mg, you need to eat 700-800 grams of bread from wheat flour or a kilogram of lean meat. But who now can afford such gluttony without risk to health? Over the past two or three decades, human civilization has reduced energy consumption by 2 – 2.5 times. In the same it was to decrease food intake. Otherwise, the inevitable consequence would be overeating, overweight. And this is – a direct path to diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases. Another fact: our diet has lost its former diversity. We do not notice that our breakfasts, lunches and dinners are reduced to a narrow standard set of several major groups of products and ready meals. We buy more refined, high-calorie, but poor in vitamins and mineral substances food (white bread, pasta, confectionery, sugar, all kinds of drinks). In our diet increased the proportion of products subjected to preservation, long-term storage, intensive processed, which inevitably leads to a significant loss of vitamins.
4. There is an opinion that “synthetic” vitamins present in multivitamin preparations and vitamin-enriched foods are not the same “natural”. Vitamins contained in multivitamin preparations do not correspond to a “live” natural, they are less effective, may include various impurities. What vitamins in natural products are better absorbed by the body; that the content of vitamins in drugs produced by the pharmaceutical industry is not as specified; that the vitamins in these complexes are unstable and quickly disintegrate. In fact, all the vitamins, manufactured medical industry, are completely identical, “natural”, present in natural foods, and the chemical structure, and biologicheskoyaktivnosti. Vitamins are isolated from natural sources or produced from natural raw materials. Thus, B2 and B12 was prepared in pharmaceutical production, as in nature, the synthesis by microorganisms, vitamin C from natural make-glucose sugars, vitamin P isolated from chokeberry, citrus peel or Sophora etc. Vitamin tablets, among other things, stores better than, for example, vegetables in the refrigerator, and provide high purity material. And another important point: vitamins in multivitamin complexes are in a form that is most easily absorbed by the body.
How to take vitamins
to buy the best complexes, which include not only vitamins but also minerals, as our body lacks of many trace elements. Taking vitamin complexes, it makes sense to periodically change them. Because in each preparation different composition of substances and different number of them.
When choosing a package, first of all, it is necessary to carefully read the label made at the recipe. The content of vitamins in the vitamin preparations and enriched foods must be specified as absolute values or as a percentage of the daily human needs. In noteworthy products or complexes content of each vitamin in a tablet, capsule, beverage cup should be at least 20-30% of the daily human requirements, and most preferably be in the range of 50-100% of this need. Between the methods of each course is recommended to take a break of 2-4 weeks, depending on the state of health. Take vitamins not only for treatment but also for prevention.
Daily rates for a healthy person and a patient differ markedly. Therefore, in various diseases for the proper selection of a vitamin complex is necessary to consult a doctor and not self-medicate. Now pharmacies appeared vitamins directed action – against stress, brittle nails, etc. In these preparations increased content of certain minerals. So you can pick up a set, depending on their problems. It is advisable to take vitamins and those who observe fasting, to support the body during the period of malnutrition.
Vitamins and Health
doing to our body in sufficient quantities, vitamins carry out protection of the body from the aggressive environment, is largely responsible for the safety of our nervous system.
It is known that people who are not suffering from vitamin starvation, resistance to stress and better tolerate stress.
Any stress leads to increased consumption of vitamins, so that those who live in an intense rhythm, need to consume more vitamin C, E and beta-carotene.
Vitamins help to prolong youth. Not just help – entirely responsible for the update process of the body. In our body constantly produces free radicals – substances that the body wears out. Vitamins C, E and neutralize them and prevent rapid aging. Shining skin its elasticity and strength – it is a vitamin. Strong, thick hair and healthy nails – also the result of the vitamins in our body. Healthy and fresh looking skin give vitamins C, B6 and K, as a building material for hair and nails – calcium – is best absorbed in conjunction with vitamin D3.
Thus, regular replenishment of vitamin deficiency due to multivitamin and vitamin and mineral complexes prophylactic, without creating any excess, will provide a guaranteed level of vitamins in the body, good health and high efficiency.