Communication – the interaction of two or more people, aimed at the harmonization and unification of their efforts to establish relations and achieve a common result, one of the most important factor in mental and social development of the child.
The identity of people develops and operates only in their relations with other people. According to LS Vygotsky all higher mental functions of the person originally formed as external, ie those involved in the implementation of which not one but at least two subjects. And only gradually by assigning them become internal. The development of Vygotsky’s views led to the creation of domestic psychologists (AV Zaporozhets, DBElkonina al.) The concept of child development in which the child’s development is understood as a process of appropriation of the social and historical experience in the process of interaction with native speakers – adults. In foreign psychology there are various communication concept. Some treat it primarily as a “communication” – the exchange of information between people. Others – like the “social perception” perception and understanding of the human person. acts “Interaction” For the third leading component of communication – Interaction. In domestic psychology recognizes the fundamental importance of each of these factors, but do not be absolute any of them; Communication is considered in the aggregate of all of these components as a special kind of activity.
Community child and adult, in most cases is only part of a broader collaboration. The development of communication motives comes in close contact with the child’s basic needs: the need for new impressions in vigorous activity, in recognition and support. On this basis, there are three main categories of communication motives – educational, business and personal. Educational and business motives play an auxiliary role and mediate to achieve more distant, end of motives; get personal motives in the activities of communicating their final satisfaction.
Lines of different aspects of communication generate multiple logical successive stages, or levels, each of which communication activities in favor holistic, qualitatively distinct form. MI Lisina identified four forms of communication, replacing each other during the first 7 years of life. Situational-personal communication with an adult child (the first six months of life) in the developed form, has the form of so-called complex – complex behavior, including concentration, gaze into the face of another person, smile, vocalization, and motor recovery. baby interaction with adults flows independently, without any other activities and is leading the activities of the child’s age. For the purposes of communicating to children need to learn to perceive the impact of the adults, and it stimulates the formation of perceptual actions. Lessons in the field of communication, the acquisition start and then be used to explore the world of objects, which leads to the overall progress of cognitive processes. Situational-business form of communication (6 months – 2 years) takes place against the background of practical cooperation between the child and adult. In addition to attention and goodwill young child begins to feel the need and adult collaboration. The latter can not be reduced to mere assistance; children require adult participation, simultaneous practical work with them. The leading motives are business communication. The main means of communication – subject-effective operation. The most important acquisition of young children is to understand the speech of other people and the mastery of active speech. The emergence of speech is closely associated with communication activities: being the most advanced means of communication, it appears for the purposes of communication and its context.
Mastery of speech allows children to overcome the limitations of situational dialogue and move from a purely pragmatic cooperation with the adult to a higher form of communicative activity. Outsituative cognitive communication (3-5 years) unfolds against the backdrop of the cognitive activity of children, aimed at establishing the senses do not perceive the relationship to the physical world. With the expansion of its capabilities children aspire to a kind of theoretical cooperation with adults, consisting in a joint discussion of the events, phenomena and relationships in the material world. The most typical of this form of communication for younger and middle preschoolers. In many children, it is the highest achievement until the end of the preschool. Outsituative personal form of communication with older children (6-7 years) – the highest form of communicative activity of children in pre-school child. Unlike the previous one, it serves the purpose of social cognition, not the objective world, the world of people, not things. It is based on personal motivations children to interact, and against the background of a variety of activities: games, labor, cognitive. But now communication has independent significance for the child and not an aspect of its cooperation with the adult. The senior partner is a source of knowledge on social phenomena and at the same time itself becomes an object of knowledge as a member of society, as a special person. Due to the success of children within outsituative personal communication reach some state of readiness for school, which is an important part of the child’s ability to perceive adults as teachers and to take in relation to him the position of the pupil. When the child arrives in the adult role of the school is almost unchanged, but the teacher becomes more authoritative parents. Gradually, in connection with entering into a collective peer communication with friends is becoming increasingly important for children. By the end of primary school age the desire for approval by the comrades often expressed even more strongly than the pursuit of adult approval. This new circumstance entails significant changes in the social situation of development of the younger schoolboy and preparing the transition to a new stage in the development of age – adolescence.
One of the most important features characterizing the development of the social situation in the middle school age, is the presence of already existing team of peers, in which children try to find and take their place. Characteristic for teenagers striving for independence (the so-called personal autonomy) expressed mainly in countering the influence of adults with increasing depending on the influence of peers. If this influence is negative, there is a risk of distortion of personality development teenager fixing antisocial behaviors. In adolescence the need for communication is becoming more profound in content. Expanding the area of spiritual and intellectual communication.
Formed in relationships with adults and peers style of communication, as well as communication skills, took shape in the educational process, to a large extent determined in adulthood social and psychological characteristics of the individual.