Difficult children – a broad generic term used in scientific and mainly in the scientific and popular literature, as well as in teaching journalism to refer to a broad category of children, showing a clear deviation in personal development. The assignment of a child to this category is carried out, usually by external manifestations of his individual psychological characteristics that serve as an obstacle to the normal course of the educational process. The reasons underlying the violations and behavior of the child, are very diverse.
So often difficult to include children, significantly differ in their individual characteristics. Evaluation of the child as difficult mainly reflects the opinion of it parents and teachers, and not the specific physiological characteristics.
In modern literature difficult commonly referred to those children whose behavior deviates drastically from accepted norms and prevents a full education. Therefore, also used a synonym for “maladjusted children” because they are less inclined to follow the teaching requirements and display extreme resistance to traditional teaching influences.
One of the main causes of difficulties in the educational process, is a mental illness, and the so-called border states. A child suffering, such as psychopathy or early infantile autism, certainly stands out from the mass of normally developing peers, and his education is much more difficult. However, its adoption is not difficult category is quite justified, because its rejection to be primarily a medical correction. If the child’s behavior makes him suspect in the neuro-behavioral abnormalities, should be consulted in psychoneurologist, neurologist, child psychiatrist, who make qualified diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment (in the absence of any measures of its pedagogical correction may be ineffective). In some cases, we recommend individual tuition.
Some behavioral disorders can be caused by congenital or acquired psycho-physiological abnormalities that are not related to mental illness. This so-called neonatal nervousness, manifestations of the so-called fetal alcohol syndrome (occurring as a result of alcohol intoxication on the prenatal stage of development). By blurred psychophysical disorders also include minimal brain dysfunction that occurs due to exposure to various harmful factors in the early stages of development.
The most common consequence of this breach acts as a so-called hyperkinetic syndrome, which is due to an imbalance of excitation and inhibition in the nervous system is manifested in over-activity, impulsivity, inability to arbitrary regulation of behavior. Children with such disabilities, require individualized treatment, taking into account the peculiarities of their mental and physical development. In most cases, adjust their behavior can be subject to a combination of individually selected measures of pedagogical influence and therapeutic remedial measures.
In most cases, a medical examination of difficult children ascertains the normal level of their mental and physical development. It is obvious that the deviation in their behavior due to external – social and pedagogical factors.
The most common cause of temporary deviations is insufficient consideration on the part of parents and teachers of the age characteristics of the child development. In domestic child psychology it found that individual development is carried out in the form of so-called alternation of stable and critical ages. In the latter, there is a transition of the child to a qualitatively new stage of development, the implementation of new mental structures of evolving earlier. At the same time adults do not always true estimate increased capacity and needs of the child and continue to carry out well-established, but more inadequate measure of pedagogical influence. In this situation, a critical age is transformed into a genuine crisis stage fraught with irregularities in the behavior of the child. This aspect is especially significant crisis of three years, when the child’s identity is formed, which requires a different attitude toward it, and the crisis of adolescence, in which the child is prone to overestimate their increased capabilities, and senior vice versa continue to treat him like a little. Numerous studies have shown that with adequate approach to developing individual critical age can proceed without conflict. Therefore, the definition of “difficult age” is rather arbitrary; age-appropriate development to avoid many of the difficulties characteristic not only for a specific age phase, but for the individual development of the situation.
They are generated chronically inadequate conditions of pedagogical influence on the baby in the number of cases of violation of the educational process. Adverse moral and psychological climate in the family is often the basis on which there are abnormalities in the development of personality. Insufficient or, conversely, excessive demands on the child to generate its unwillingness and inability to perceive the pedagogical impact. Especially the negative role played by the lack of unity demands from parents in which a child falls into the “educational vacuum”, being unable and unwilling to meet the contradictory or even mutually exclusive requirements. Education based on moralizing and punishment, usually does not lead to long-term positive effect: being accustomed to obey only out of fear, the child can easily go to any faults, we need only fear weaken. Therefore, the complaints of parents and teachers on children’s behavior should be considered comprehensively, taking into account all the possible errors in education.
Much help can be in this family psychological counseling and school counseling service, where a child’s behavior is analyzed in the context of the totality of the conditions of its development. Often certain measures psychotherapeutic correction of family relations help to solve the difficult problem of the child.
An important role in the child’s behavior and the formation of his personality plays a school performance. Arising from different causes chronic backlog in education can generate the student’s aversion to learning activity and the desire to assert itself in other ways. Often dunce opposes itself to the class and the teacher shows the calling and inappropriate behavior.
Violation of pedagogical tact, abuse of punishments and negative evaluations only aggravates opposition arose. The task of the teacher – to understand the reasons for failure and try to correct their practices individual approach to the student. In some cases, even minor progress in the teaching generate positive changes in the behavior of the child.