Imagination, thought, speech preschooler
Imagination baby develops in the game. At first, it is inseparable from the perception of objects and perform with them action game. A child rides on a stick – at this point he Rider and stick – a horse. But he can not imagine a horse with no subject, suitable for skakaniya, and can not stick to mentally transform into a horse at a time when it does not work with. The game has three children, the age of four is essential object-deputy resemblance to the subject, which it replaces. In older children, the imagination can rely on such items that do not look like exchangeable. Gradually the need for external supports disappears. There internalization – the transition to the gaming action with the subject, which in reality is not, subject to the game transformation, giving it a new meaning and presentation of action with him in mind, with no real action. This is the birth of the imagination as a specific mental process. Formed in the game, the imagination goes and in other types of preschool activities. This is most clearly manifested in painting, and in the book of fairy tales, poems. At the same time, the child develops an arbitrary imagination when it plans its activities, the original design and orients itself on the result. The child learns to use the images spontaneously arise. It is believed that a child’s imagination is richer than imagination adult. This opinion is based on the fact that children fantasize for a variety of reasons. However, the child’s imagination is not really richer and poorer in many ways than the adult imagination. The child can imagine is much smaller than an adult, because children are more limited life experience and therefore less material for the imagination. Between three and four years with the expressed desire for reconstruction of the child still can not keep the perceived images of before. Recreate the image for the most part far from the fundamental principle and quickly leave the child. However, the child easily lead him into a fantastic world, where there are fantastic characters. In the senior preschool age child’s imagination becomes manageable. Imagination begins to anticipate the practical work, teaming up with thinking in solving cognitive tasks. For all the importance of developing active imagination in general mental development of the child is associated with them and certain danger. Some children’s imagination begins to “replace” the reality, creates a special world in which the child reaches easily satisfy all desires. Such cases require special attention, since they lead to autism.
The development of speech is in several ways: improving its practical use in communicating with other people at the same time it becomes the basis for the restructuring of mental processes, an instrument of thought. Under certain conditions, education of the child begins to use not only speech, but also aware of its structure, which is important for the subsequent acquisition of Merit. During the preschool period continued to grow your child’s vocabulary. Compared with the early childhood vocabulary preschooler increases, as a rule, three times I was not only due to the nouns, but also due to the verbs, pronouns, adjectives, numerals and connecting words. During the preschool years to digest the morphological system of the mother tongue, the child almost mastered the basic features of the types of declension and conjugation. At the same time children master complex sentences, connecting unions, as well as most of the common suffixes (suffixes to refer to sex young animals, etc.). Older preschoolers are not already found cases of double declination. The appearance of children on the orientation of the sound form of words promotes the assimilation of the morphological system of the native language. Phonemic Hearing the child is formed on the basis of direct verbal communication. By the end of early childhood, children are well differentiated words that differ from each other even if only one sonorous or deaf, hard or soft sound. Thus, the primary phonemic hearing is sufficiently developed very early. However, to make a sound analysis of the word, the word break into its component sounds and set the order of the sounds in the word of a child does not know how and by the end of preschool age.
With the development of curiosity, cognitive interests thinking is increasingly being used for the development of children of the world, which is beyond the scope of the tasks set by their own practical activities. Preschoolers have resorted to a kind of experiments to determine the questions which interest them, the observed phenomena, talk about them and draw conclusions. Acting in the mind with the images, the child imagines the real action with the object and its result and thus solves the problem facing them. Creative thinking – the main type of thinking preschooler. In its simplest form it appears in early childhood, showing up in a narrow range of practical problems related to the substantive activities of the child, using simple tools. By the beginning of pre-school age children decide in your mind only such tasks, in which the action is performed by hand or instrument directly aimed at achieving practical results, – the movement of the subject, its use or modification. Younger preschoolers solve such problems by using external orienting action, ie, at the level of visual-active thinking. The average pre-school age in the solution more simple and then more complex tasks with the indirect result of the children are slowly beginning to move from the outer sample to sample, committed in the mind. Once the child will be acquainted with the multiple-choice problem, he can solve a new version of it, not resorting to external actions with objects, and received the necessary result in mind.
Prerequisites for the development of logical thinking, assimilation actions with words, numbers, both with signs, notices the real objects and situations are laid in late childhood, when the child begins to form a symbolic function of consciousness. At this time he begins to understand that the object can be designated to replace with another object, drawing, words. However, the word can not be used for a long time the children to solve the problems of independent thinking. And visually-effective, and especially spatial visualization ability is closely related to the speech. Using speech adult supervise the actions of the child, put him in front of the practical and cognitive tasks, teach methods for their solutions. Speech utterances of the child, even in the period when they are still accompanied by practical action, not anticipating it, contribute to the realization of child progress and the result of this action, help the search for ways of solving problems.