In primary school age daughter, like all other mental processes, is undergoing significant changes. Their essence is that the memory of the child gradually acquires the features of arbitrariness, becoming consciously controlled and mediated. “The memory of this age becomes a thinking” (El’konin, Child Psychology. M., 1989, p. 56).
Convert mnemonic function due to a significant increase in the requirements for its efficiency, high level which is required for the implementation of new mnemonic problems arising in the course of training activities. Now the child must remember a lot: to learn the material literally be able to retell it close to the text, or in his own words, and in addition to remember the learned and be able to play it through a long period of time. The inability of the child to remember the effect on its performance and influence eventually the attitude toward learning and school.
The ability of younger schoolboys to arbitrary memorization is not the same throughout the primary school. In first grade (as in preschool children) is well developed involuntary memory, fixing vivid, emotionally intense for your child information and events of his life. However, not all of what is necessary to remember the first-grader at the school, is an interesting and attractive for him. Therefore, direct memory in this case is already sufficient.
Improving memory in the early school years is primarily due to the acquisition during the training activities and different methods of memorization strategies related to the organization and processing of memorized material. However, without the special operation aimed at the formation of such methods, they fold in children spontaneously and often differ significantly from the students of classes 1-2 and 3-4. For children 7-8 years typical situation where a child is much easier to remember something without the use of any means, than to remember with a special organization and comprehension of the material. On the question: “Do you remember” – a child of this age often replies, “Just remember all.”
As the complexity of learning tasks set to “easy to remember” is no longer justified, forcing the child to seek methods of organization of the material. The most important are the methods of semantic memory, the underlying logical memory. The basis of the logical memory is the use of mental processes as a support, a means of remembering. This memory is based on understanding. In this connection it is appropriate to quote the words of Leo Tolstoy: “Speak only knowledge when it purchased the efforts of thought and not a just a memory.”
Junior school age is the sensitive for the development of higher forms of voluntary memorization, so purposeful work on developing mastery of mnemonic activity is during this period the most effective.
Semantic memory is based on the understanding that on the activity of thinking, and is associated with language development. In the process of semantic memory in the first place are suitable for storing communication – major structural units of the recall, the so-called mnemonic support, which allows us to overcome the limitations of short-term memory. Links used to remember, are not independent, and ancillary nature, they serve as a means of helping to remember anything. The most effective are mnemonic support, reflecting the main points of any material. They are aggregated semantic units. For children with poor memory of the main ways of its compensation lies in the development of semantic memory: the ability to summarize, highlight the main points in it.
An effective training method for creating mnemonic supports designed K.P.Maltsevoy (1958). This technique, called “semantic units” can be used for students of all ages who have difficulty in mnemonic activity, starting from the second class. The most convenient way to use this method of teaching in primary schools.
The method consists in the fact that before the apprentice seeks to highlight the main text (to create a mnemonic support) and specify the path analysis of the text. In order to isolate the most important, the student must consistently respond to two questions: “About whom (or what) is spoken in this part” and “What does (informed) about this?”
The answer to the first question allows you to emphasize important to the extent to which it relates, and the second question is to validate the selection. The training methodology has two parts. The first part – the selection of semantic poles, the second – the preparation and use of the plan as a semantic mnemonic support student activities.