Psychological maintenance of pedagogical process
Psychological maintenance of pedagogical process in the conditions of preschool children is an important area of activity of the practical psychologist. Here, pedagogical process, we consider how the system of pedagogical influence with education and educational objectives, where education provides “accumulation” of knowledge and skills of social and historical experience, and education involves the formation of certain attitudes (concepts and principles), values (moral ethics), defining the mind and human behavior. In either case, the pedagogical impacts are based on psychological laws and mechanisms of ontogenetic development. In addition, the teaching process is related to the psychological patterns of personality formation in the conditions of specially organized actions of the system.
Thus, sharing pedagogical process on the education and upbringing, we thus differentiate its psychological support. Providing educational process is carried out on the basis of psychological support of educational (developmental) programs; and to ensure the educational process is based on psychologizing educational strategies.
Let us dwell on each of the areas of psychological support.
The program – a basic document preschool institution that determines the content and direction of the work of teachers and educators. From 1962 to 1992 “program of education and training in kindergarten” (standard program) was a binding document, according to which the teaching carried npotsecc in preschool. “On a single, highly regulated program of work leads to uniformity of form, content and pedagogical process methods.” Teachers were guided by a unified and ideological standard in upbringing and education, which adversely affected the mental health and development of children.
Currently, we created the legal conditions for a variety of content, forms and methods of work with children of preschool age. The basic thesis of reforms in the context of public pre-school education is the “humanization and improvement of the efficiency of educational process” based on individually-differentiated approach to children. First of all, the transformation is provided by the creation of pre-school institutions of different types, based on the variability of the content, forms of organization and maintenance of pedagogical process: public and commercial nurseries, children’s centers and high schools, gymnasia. Variability types of preschool institutions directly related to the variability of educational (developmental) programs for pre-school children ( “Rainbow”, “development”, “Sources”, “Dialectics” and so forth.). Initially the differentiation program is based on the distinction between the objectives and tasks of psycho-pedagogical influences. Some of them contribute to the overall development and education of preschool children (general developmental, basic programs), others provide development of special abilities of children (specialized programs).
General developing type programs include the basic directions and goals of psycho-pedagogical influences respectively age stages of ontogenetic development. The peculiarity of general developmental programs, they differ from each other related to the initial theoretical concepts about the development process.
The originality of specialized programs is necessary, apart from the general theory (ontogenetic) development also present the concept of the objective features (special) development of children. That means deep insight into the logic of objects (visual and musical arts, language structures and physico-mathematical constructions).
Since the administration and the teaching staff of the preschool institution may determine the choice of one or another educational program, the question arises about the selection criteria and software technologies. The questions can be solved by providing special systems programs (methodological, pedagogical, psychological). They are fundamentally different on the goals, objectives, methods, as well as positions of specialists engaged in this activity. The proposed system of psychological support is universal and, therefore, acceptable for all kinds of standard and alternative programs. In addition, it is adapted to the national system of preschool education in modern conditions. The structure of the system consists of three interrelated sections on the basis of series of ongoing activities, “Introduction,” “Adaptation,” “Routine maintenance”.
Section 1. Introduction
The preparatory phase
Objective: The statement of readiness for the introduction of an educational program.
- identify the level of mental health of children;
- differentiation of mental development of children on the basis of partial, individual, group, age-related differences;
- identify possible updating of the indicators of mental development of children, which is based on the concept of a particular program.
For example, the ability to operate dialectical mental activities (treatment, transformation, seriation) as the benchmark for the introduction of the program “Dialectics” (author Veraksa NE) or the ability to activate the indicative action (skills) as an important condition for the introduction of the program “Development” (author under the leadership of the team LA Wenger).
As a result, a given diagnostic activity is determined by general and special psychological readiness of children’s contingent to the introduction of one or another educational program.
At the same time carried out diagnostic work on the definition of psychological readiness of the teaching staff of pre-school institutions, excluding the aspects of professional competence:
- determine the degree of motivation of the introduction program for teachers and educators;
- identification of the individual (psychological and psycho-physiological) characteristics of teachers and educators as the conditions of effective development and adoption of the program content. Differentiation of readiness of individual teachers and the teaching staff as a whole in accordance with program requirements.
For example, one of the main objectives of the program “Rainbow” (group of authors under the direction of GN Doronova Jacobson and ST) is “implementation in each age period preschool educator relevant forms of communication with their children,” based on the concept of ontogeny of communication MI Lisina. It provides for the development and activation of specific forms and means of communication for children in different age groups. Educator-oriented authoritarian style of communication, it is difficult to adapt to the partnership relations with children or a teacher with a fixed style effects without psychological help rarely refuses an assignment forms and means of communication.
As a result, stated the readiness of children and teaching staff for the introduction of a curriculum with the definition of the input mode. The rationale for the conclusion of the psychologist are diagnostic materials preparatory phase,
Options for the introduction of the program:
1. Introduction no program content changes (basic):
- frontal (all age groups, preschool)
- age (group one preschool age parallels)
- group (separate groups of pre-school institutions).
2. Introduction to the program content of the modification changes (experimental):
3. Introduction to the professional training of the teaching staff.
4. Introduction of a professional counseling teaching staff.
The first two modes are proved results psychodiagnosis children, third and fourth – teachers and educators.
The main phase
Objective: Introduction of the program as the main teaching strategies and education of children and learning technologies in preschool.
The content of activity: the organization of psycho-pedagogical activities of the system in accordance with the program requirements.
For example, the program “Dialectics” involves the interaction of the intelligent structuring and personal-emotional stabilization on the basis of subject lessons cycles (philosophy, fairy tale, biology, mathematics, history and so forth.) And stabilizing the complex.
Software maintenance “Rainbow” is superimposed on the life of children in the preschool process by type of interaction with an adult: a specially organized activity (exercise), joint activity, independent (free) activities.
Section 2. Adaptation
Purpose: Adaptation of the educational program to the specific operating conditions.
- modification of program content;
- a statement of the results of the adaptation program content.
For example, almost all educational programs are based on the age of differentiation, where each age stage corresponds to program content, which determines the development of children. Kindergarten with a system of different age groups when entering the general developmental programs must modify the software contents, methods and forms of its organization in accordance with the age composition of groups.
Section 3. Routine maintenance
Directly dependent on the concept of development and their inherent dynamics of the indices. They can be represented by a complex achievements ZUNov systems (knowledge and skills), neoplasms blocks, etc. For this reason, most educational programs have this security system adapted for the program content. Most often they are built in the form of psycho-pedagogical diagnostics.
Objective: To ensure the conceptual integrity of software content and psycho-pedagogical influences in the concrete conditions of functioning of the educational program.
- psychologization software content in the context of real pedagogical process;
- a statement of the dynamics of development indicators in accordance with program requirements.
Discussed above psychological maintenance of educational programs determines the substantive component systems of psychological support of the pedagogical process in preschool. But, like any system of special support, it also includes the procedural component that allows you to optimize the pedagogical impact. It is known that all sorts of specially arranged impact on children must be psychologically justified. For this reason, the organization of classes in the preschool as a form of specially organized activities of the psychologist helps the teacher to answer the questions: “What should I do?” and “How do?”
Consider the content of the psychological help to the teacher on the basis of recommendations to the psychological studies of the cognitive cycle:
- Planning. Use long-term planning for the organization of systematic cognitive development of children. Only the effects of the system can provide a high level of assimilation of information and the development of cognitive processes.
- Preparation. Remembering the cognitive load of classes. C can be used for load optimization:
- more information blocks for individual or group exposure;
- Modification and complicated options for developing games.
- Structure. In the classroom cognitive cycle following blocks must be present:
- introducing new information (skills, operations);
- securing the new information;
- systematizing the new information.
An example of the structural construction:
Informative conversation show.
Developing game, watching.
Synthesis and classified analysis (systematizing).
- The form. Use the integrated classes (a combination of teaching and learning methods in the context of one activity) and combined class (a combination of several activities in the context of a single session). This contributes to the structuring of cognitive development on the basis of the chain: perception – thought – imagination.
- Monitoring and diagnostics. Systematically conduct yourself:
- control sections to identify skills, knowledge and skills in accordance with the program content (1 every 2 months);
- psychological and pedagogical diagnostics to identify the dynamics of the development of psycho-pedagogical characteristics (2 times a year).
These forms of control and testing of evidence on the impact of pedagogical influences.
Psychological support of educational process is based on the psychologizing of education strategies. Mentalizing education strategy is a set of attitudes that determine the direction of pedagogical influences.
The main setting is the recognition of self-worth and uniqueness of each individual. This thesis is largely caregiver must determine the position in relation to children. Formation of this position is carried out in the course of the dialogue with the adult child communication under certain conditions:
- recognition of the child’s right to their own point of view (his own “I”);
- providing the child with the right of choice (alternative) permission life situations;
- cooperation and partnership in the adult and children’s activities.
Next psychological setting – a positive decision of the individual child’s drawing on positive expectations (advance payment). Positive or negative expectations are realized through the forecast behavior and regulated system of rewards and punishments. It is known that the child grows up, what are the projected him to adult expectations. Despite this, parents and teachers often say: “I knew (a) that you get dirty (podereshsya, you break the vase fall …).”
The content of the expectations may be different, but the predominant sign notes the adoption or rejection of the child.
An important condition psychologization education strategy is based on individual characteristics of the child.
In children the same age group are widely differentiated primarily physiological features associated with the functioning of the nervous system. This distinction in the life pace stenichnosti, as an indicator of performance, and plasticity of neural and psychological processes.
For example, two children of the same age may be a difference of temporary retention efficiency from 5 to 40 minutes. At equal level of arbitrariness of a child 5 years of age can control their behavior, and the other – are not able to do it.
Educators and parents are often guided by the average age of the norm. Although in assessing the progress of individual development of the child tight focus on the unacceptable norm. To determine the objective approach to a particular child in addition to the age and development of functional standards must take into account the possibility of situational change (rate of decrease, emotional inhibition – excitation and so on.).
It occupies a special place in the setting of adult personal transformation, ie work of parents and teachers on themselves. The position of self-transformation is needed in building a pedagogical strategy, as an adult person who is responsible for education, it is of great importance.
For example, authoritarian, aggressive parenting style contributes to the formation of children collectively, the “evil” adult image.
Aggressive and adult reaction to frustration should not be “reset” to the child, since this dangerous and unpunished way to discharge causes great harm to the mental health of children.
In the context of the overall strategy of the professional practice of child psychologist psychological support preschool educational process is organized as a planned activity and activity on request of the administration and the teaching staff. This activity is carried out by means of psychological analysis activities and games, and the current control psychodiagnosis, psihoekspertirovaniya and psychological consulting.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the presented “complex”, an interdisciplinary approach to education and the education of children of preschool age contributes to solving problems of professional children’s experts – practical problems of psycho-pedagogical cooperation.