Over the past 50 years, the ruling family counseling is a systematic approach that considers the family as a system. This means that the family is regarded as an integral unit. It consists of parts that it includes. The objects of the family influence is not considered the elements of which it is composed, and the whole family as a whole. Family counselor helps the family as a whole.
The most common areas – systemic family counseling and systemic family therapy.
The theoretical basis for the system view of the family is the general systems theory, which was developed in the 40s by Ludwig von Bertalamfi. He claimed that most of the objects of the world are advisable organized systems – organismic world view. In the same way, as the system is functioning and the person is also different social formations, including the family.
The postulates of the theory of systems:
- The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The system described by the component parts of which it consists. Life does not consist of mother, father and child. All of these elements are present, but the family as a system – something more.
- All the elements and processes that take place within the family, mutually influence each other and mutually conditioning. Accordingly, the changes that occur in a separate second element system can determine changes in other parts of the system or the system as a whole. By influencing the child can cause changes in all other participating families.
From the point of view of system theory, the family is an open system. Closed systems – those that operate autonomously. Open – which for their livelihoods need to exchange with the environment. Something should be given to the environment and something to take from it. it exists in society and it should interact with the elements of society – the family to survive. If it is not – the system starts something not to be missed. family functions may be affected.
In addition, the family is self-organizing system. This means that the family, as the system is built on the principle of expediency, and all family behavior is appropriate. Source transformation is within the family itself. If a family has a purpose, it defines the entire family as the vital functions of the system.
The family is also the primary system with respect to each element included in it. This means that the law, for which there is a family may vary and do not comply with the laws for which there are elements of it – family members. What is happening in the family often does not depend on the intentions of individuals and governed by the properties of the system as such. Parents want good parenting, but in fact it turns out different. The intentions and actions of people in the system are secondary (primary family) and subject to the rule of functioning of systems. The family is the primary and on the elements of its constituents. This provision is practical. The psychologist has a lot of time given to the wishes and intentions of one element of the system, but did not understand anything, why in this system there are problems.
If the environment is trying to influence the family, he should consider it as a functioning system. The main principle – an indirect impact. This means that the family as a system of more elements of which it consists, as it is more and psychologist, though something to change it (the psychologist). The impact on one of the elements will get opposition aimed to snivelirovat action psychologist. Drug addiction – a problem of the system rather than the individual. Nenarkoman for family – an anomaly, and the system is trying to restore the old status.
Therefore, all interventions that are used by people to help, are mediated. Freud (Little Hans case) described first. Communicating with one family member to help another. The aggressiveness of the child can not disappear through direct effects on the child, but by the impact on the parents. Working with children up to 4 years is reasonable enough. Therefore, parents are more suitable environment for the impact – indirect method of influence.
The family is a system related to the other also in longitudinal section. Systems wife’s family interact with the husband’s family, and therefore many patterns in the new family is not reinvented, but come to us from previous systems. Therefore it is important to own genogram technique. It reminds geniologicheskoe tree. With genogram manage to record and describe the nature of the relationship of people in generations, and to identify the main patterns in relationships that are transmitted and reproduced through the generations. Wear character as stereotypes by playing family stereotypes parent families. For example, the transfer of the stereotype of alcoholism. Some unsolved problems in the parental home, as some forms of behavior reproduce in the next family. For example, the mother and son had chronic conflict. My mother did not like her son. The son did not get anything from the mother. Their relationship became complicated, and he left the family in order to create a new family. He creates it, but in the relationship with his wife, he plays the same conflict that was his mother.
The theory of differentiation: if there is a dysfunction in the vertical (between generations), it is required to reproduce the horizontal. Virginia Satir – the first psychologist who has become affect the whole family, rather than individually. Salvador Minuchin – family psychology. He studied the structure of the family and found that the structure of relationships in the family seriously affects the livelihoods of family and its activities. The dynamics of family life depends on the structure of relationships in the family. The coalition – a key element of the relationship. Coalition – Education created within the system, which, depending on their nature or may contribute to the development of the family, or lead to its dysfunction. Regularity: vertical coalition in the family is dysfunctional, horizontal – functional. Coalition my mother and grandmother against her husband, mother in law, and so the phenomenon -. Dysfunctional.
In many families, the structure of the relationship is broken so that some elements of the system are close and others farther. The tactics of rapprochement and reconstruction of matrimonial coalition.
There are 2 basic law, which is subject to the family as a system:
- Law homeostasis
- development Act
Both of these laws exist and operate simultaneously
homeostasis law – any system seeks to maintain the status quo in any way. Moreover, the law applies to functional families, and for dysfunctional families. The situation in the family of a painful, but it aims to keep this position and make it stable. Any changes frighten the family. She believes that change is worse than the status quo. homeostasis Act makes clear why in the family for many years the problem may persist.
Development Act – any open system tends to evolve and pass your way from 0 to completion. The source of his creative powers laid down within the family. At the family level, the development of the law is manifested in the fact that the family, as the system must live its life cycle, which is a succession of major events or stages.
Gregory Bateson suggested his own classification of the stages:
1 – stage of monads – premarital stage. Submitted personal life of each of the people who then create a family. Young people grow up, he realizes parental family rules. Similar to the female part.
2 stage – stage of the dyad. The couple begins to live together and face challenges. It must agree, will build its own system on how rules. Development Act will be implemented, if there will be segregation of duties.
It is important to remember that there are rules of the lungs – external rules of life and challenging the rules that relate to the bad consciously understood the rules or regulations relating to self-esteem. Example of a situation where the husband works and the wife is not – a question – how it will accrue to finance or wife when confronted with her husband’s family rules (to celebrate the birthdays of his wife violently on the concepts and the opposite of her husband).
The distance between the two in the dyad very close
Stage 3 – the triad, when the baby comes. This makes the family structure more stable. On the other hand triad separates spouses – distancing, due to more attention to the child. They say that the appearance of a child – is a symbolic divorce from her husband. The appearance of the child changes the roles, rights and responsibilities of family members. We must agree on the rules of a new life.
4th stage – the square, the emergence of 2nd child. New family member pushes the 1st child. detronizatsii Syndrome – Junior overthrows with older throne, depriving him of the powers of the sole possession of the father and mother. It generates strong jealousy, envy and tension in families. Senior is facing a situation where all the younger and me nothing. Here it is necessary to re-negotiate who gets raises and that the elder should not be forgotten, distribution capabilities and come to new agreements.
5th stage of the children exit to the outside world. It begins when the family comes first grader. This is a serious step, because there is a family check on the efficiency of the system used by education regulations. Regularity: If during the 1st grade child entering school to cope with the requirements, which means that the family at this stage is functional. Conversely, if in the first class, there are problems, it speaks about a dysfunctional family. It is important to remember that the functionality or dysfunctional families are not going on the entire life cycle. It can be functional in step dyads and become dysfunctional for background triad.
Going to school is a test for gipersotsializirovannyh families also, that families who live on social rules like everyone else. When the child’s behavior becomes standard, it can easily turn into a so-called family shame. This is usually associated with those desires that were unfulfilled parents themselves. As a child, trying to make up for something that could not themselves have. Family relationships – the relationship of frustration. Good motives do not work.
6th stage of maturing adolescent children. homeostasis Act greatly at odds with the development of the law. The family tries to keep former status, but are strong centrifugal forces. A child looking sebё, becomes an adult, on the other hand the family is trying to save his family membership. There is a moratorium on identity when using family child ceases to search for his identity. To overcome this stage, it is important to change the attitude to this item. Family – ambulance – a functional model. The family where there is a teenager should let him go to the outside world, but at the same time remain a reliable rear for him, where he can heal their wounds, to tell everything. If a family has a mother and a son against a coalition of the pope, she did not let go of the family, etc., to create a family as a reliable rear fail.
Also, teens crisis combined with the crisis of 30-year or 40-year-olds. All elements of the system are experiencing a regulatory crisis. This stage of the multiple crisis of the system. The family is considered to be functional if, after its passage occurs the separation of the child from the family. Complete separation is functional and partial, when the remains of the family relationship.
7th stage – an elderly dyad – all the children out of the family (empty nest syndrome)
8th stage – old monads – after the death of a spouse.