As part of a modern approach to the understanding of perception as a special operations pilot studies BG Ananiev, ZM Boguslawska, LA Wenger TS Ginevskoi, TE Endovitsky, AV Zaporozhets, VP Zinchenko, AR Luria, MI Lisin Ya.Z. Neverovič, AG Ruza, EF Rybalko and others. Have identified patterns of development in ontogenesis of perception.
It was found that the development of perception is through the formation of perceptual processes – the structural units of the process of perception in humans (AV Zaporozhets, 1941). Perceptual action provides the conscious selection of any given situation sensory properties and transformation of sensory information, leading to the creation of an image, an adequate objective world and the corresponding tasks activity. Perceptual action is closely linked with the practical. This relationship is shown in their expanded vneshnedvigatelnom nature – in the movements of his hands, feels the subject, in the movements of the larynx, reproducing audible sound, eye movements, trace the contour of the visible. In the course of these activities is carried out “assimilation” movements senses features of the perceived object (Leontiev). This leads to the removal of “cast”, “copy” of this object, creating a kind of model of perception through continuous comparison with the original, check and image correction (YB Gippenreiter).
The development of perceptual actions accompanied by a significant reduction of engine components, with the result that the process of perception externally takes the form of a one-time act of “discretion”. In the development of perception perceptual actions are acts of examination and comparison of objects with elaborated social standards – benchmarks touch. Point of reference dedicated to the course of human history certain systems, regularly constructed series of forms, sizes, colors, etc., who have received a certain verbal designation.
In ontogenetic development comes mastery of the subject inspection, alignment methods, spin-off of certain properties (ways viewing, listening, feeling), as well as the assimilation of sensory standards systems, through which an individual learns a public sensory experience (Zaporozhets).
Subsequently, the external actions with external objects are reduced, automated and internalized. The external action pass in a mental plan and standards – in memory contents. The orientation of the structure becomes integral operation steps. As a result of the orientation are converted into one of mental processes, if they are directed on features of external objects – in reception, and if the existing connection between objects – in thinking. At this stage, they can break away from the current activities of acquiring a relative autonomy and its own logic of development, and, in particular, anticipate the action, providing them with the regulation.
From the above course of development of perception, it is clear that a necessary condition for the child’s mental development is the maturation of his body, the nervous system. For the development of perception of particular importance is the maturation of the analyzers (primarily visual, auditory). However, these organic conditions pose a possible prerequisites for the development of perception.
Studies of domestic and foreign scholars have shown that newborn babies are reflex reactions, showing readiness analyzers to receive external influences. The study of the visual analyzer operations revealed the presence of changes in the general motor activity in response to light stimuli. In the works of domestic and foreign psychologists and physiologists (MP Denisova and KL Figurina, A. Bronstein and EP Petrova, N. Kasatkina and AI Levikova and al.) Describes an increase tactile sensitivity, the development of auditory analysis and visual perception of infants.
However, organic sensory development background (in the form of natural anatomical and physiological features of the analyzer systems) are not yet self-sufficient for the initial development of a child of the human experience that underlies the formation of his mental properties and abilities. The need to adapt to the peculiarities of analyzers activities surrounding the child’s world.
The development of adaptive mechanisms of sensory-perceptual sphere of the child in the first year of life is well known.
It highlights four age periods, characterizing the sensory development of children.
The most important acquisitions of the first period (from birth until the end of the first month) is:
- the appearance of tracking eye movement (a few hours after birth);
- the emergence of convergence (at 2-3 weeks);
- visual concentration (at 3-4 weeks);
- increasing the distance from which the child can follow a moving object;
- auditory concentration (at 2-3-th week – according to NL Figurina and MP Denisova, on the 9th day – according to A. Bronstein and EP Petrova).
During the second period (one to three months), according to studies by V. Spondylitis, NM Schelovanova, visual reaction begins to play a leading role. GL Rosengart-Pupko characterizes the third month as the principal in the development of visual perception of the child’s first year of life: the stimuli related to other receptor systems – hearing and touch – in a three-month baby cause visual reaction (turning the head to the sound of voices and searching eyes of the speaker, moving sight on toy accidentally hurt the hand). At this age, according to research, may be the first generation of unstable conditioned reflexes to auditory and visual stimuli (LI Levikova, NI Kasatkin, MO Shriftzettser, cs Nemanova).
The third period (from three to six months) is characterized by the researchers as a period of active development of the hand as an organ of action and the body of knowledge (GL-Pupko Rosengart et al.). Initially there groping movements of their hands, and then – the movement of the hands on the subject. By the end of the sixth month there is an important change in the relationship between visual perception and hand movement. Visual perception is the hand movement and adjusts the motion in relation to the direction and shape. In the same period (the fourth month), it is possible to obtain stable differentiation of light (NI Kasatkin) and sound (NP Nechaev AM Levikova et al.) Stimuli.
Main neoplasm of the fourth period (from six to twelve months) – linking movements in sequence under the control of the sensing body and the formation of propulsion systems. Appears play the presented sample simulation of external influence. Studies have shown the ability to develop sustainable differentiation in children of this age: the fine differentiation of sounds on height at the age of six or seven months (NP Nechaev); differentiation of the primary colors of the spectrum in the eighth month (MP Denisova, Figurin NL); visual depth discrimination, starting with six and a half months (J. Gibson).
Thus, the total value of the first months of life to touch the child’s development is mainly in the preparation of the analyzers to the objective perception of the outside world, in the adaptation of their work to the characteristics of external influences.
Studies of children of the second and third year of life show that the development of sensory functions in this age is determined by the substantive activities (Sh Abdullayev, SL Novoselov, NM Schelovanov et al.). External object properties with a stop to determine the action, on the one hand, make it possible to identify the object, and on the other – to be considered when performing object-related action.
As a result of psychological and educational research found that the main line of sensory development of children of the second and third year of life – the formation of the perception of relations between objects according to their external characteristics during mastering practical activities.