Subject work and play during the preschool years
In connection with the mastery of the subject activity changes the nature of the child’s orientation in new situations for him, at a meeting with the new items. If during the manipulation of the child, received a strange thing, acting with him all the ways known to him, then later his orientation is aimed at figuring out what this thing is, how it can be consumed. The orientation of the “what?” Is replaced by the orientation of the “what can you do?”.
Among the activities that the child masters in early childhood, especially important for his mental development are correlating and gun action. Related actions are, the purpose of which is to bring two or more objects (or parts thereof) in certain spatial relationships. This, for example, folding of the pyramids of the rings, the use of all kinds of prefabricated toys, closing the lids of boxes.
By the end of early childhood (in the third year of life) start to develop new activities that reach expanded form outside of this age and begin to determine the mental development. This is a game, and productive activities (painting, sculpture, design). During preschool childhood game it becomes the leading activity, but not because of the child, as a rule, most of the time in his entertaining games – the game is a qualitative change in the psyche of the child. Actually the game action will occur when the child is under the influence of one implies the other, under one subject – the other. Game action is familiar (symbolic) character. This game is most clearly revealed formulated sign function of the child mind. Its manifestation in the game has its own characteristics: Game deputy objects can have significantly less resemblance to the objects themselves, than, for example, the figure depicted with reality. However, the game alternates should allow them to act as a replaceable item. Therefore, giving its name to the subject-elected Deputy and ascribing certain properties, the child takes into account some of the features of the object-deputy. When choosing subjects Vice preschooler comes from a real relationship of objects. He readily agrees that polspichki will Mishutka, the whole match – bear-mom, boxes – little bed for Mishutka. But he would not accept such an option, which will Mishutka boxes and bed – match.
The gaming activities preschooler not only replaces the items, but also takes on a role and begins to act in accordance with this role. The child may assume the role of a horse or a terrible beast, but more often he portrays adults – mother, governess, chauffeur, pilot. In the game for the first time a child opens the relations developing between people in the course of employment, their rights and duties.
In role-play, children reflect the diversity of their surrounding reality. They reproduce scenes of family life, of work and adult relationships. Reflected in the children’s games becomes reality role-playing storyline Children of different age groups, playing a game with the same subject, making it different content. For younger preschoolers repeatedly repeat the same actions with the same objects, reproducing the real actions of adults. Game storyline, as well as play a role, more often than not planned child of preschool age, and there is, depending on what the subject falls into his hands Content role play at the senior preschool children subject to the rules arising from taking the role.
The game activity there are certain forms of communication children. The game requires the child to such qualities as initiative, sociability, the ability to coordinate their actions with those of peer groups to establish and maintain communication.
With the development of gaming skill and complexity of game ideas, children begin to engage in a longer conversation. The game itself requires it and promotes it. In cooperative play, children learn the language of dialogue, mutual understanding and mutual learning to coordinate their actions with those of another. Games activity influences the formation of the arbitrariness of psychological processes. So, in the game in children begin to develop voluntary attention and arbitrary memory. Role-playing is crucial for the development of imagination. The game activity the child learns to substitute some other things, to assume different roles. Grabbing the child and forcing him to obey the rules accordingly taken on the role, the game promotes feelings and volitional regulation of behavior.
Productive types of child activities – painting, construction – in various stages of pre-school child is closely fused with the game. Interest in drawing, design originally there was a game aimed at the process of creating drawings, design according to the game plan. And only in the middle and the senior preschool age the interest is transferred to the result of the activity (eg, drawing), and she is freed from the influence of the game. Inside gaming activity begins to take shape, and training activities, which later becomes the dominant activity.